Saturday, April 13, 2024

Download Free NASA eBook: Hubble Focus: Dark Universe

Download Free NASA eBook "Hubble Focus: Dark Universe"

Download:

PDF Format (10 MB): 

https://science.nasa.gov/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/nasa-hubble-focus-dark-universe-2024-apr-v2.pdf

ePub Format (70 MB)

https://science.nasa.gov/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/nasa-hubble-focus-dark-universe-2024-apr-v2.epub

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope team has released a new downloadable, free e-book in the Hubble Focus series, called “Hubble Focus: The Dark Universe.” This e-book highlights the mission’s recent discoveries about two mysterious components of our universe, known as dark energy—an unexplained cosmic pressure that is speeding up the universe’s expansion—and dark matter, an invisible substance detectable only by seeing how it gravitationally influences visible matter.

This e-book is part of a series called Hubble Focus. It presents examples of Hubble's recent cosmic discoveries. Its cover, shown here, features the Abell S1063 galaxy cluster. A soft blue haze, called intracluster light, casts an otherworldly glow among innumerable galaxies. The stars producing this glow were thrown free of their home galaxies. These stars now live solitary lives, no longer part of a galaxy but aligning themselves with the gravity of the overall cluster. Astronomers using Hubble found that tracing intracluster light offers a good indicator of how invisible dark matter is distributed in the cluster.

“This new e-book is a wonderful summary of all the work that Hubble, in cooperation with other observatories on the ground and in space, has put into improving our understanding of two of the biggest mysteries in astrophysics today: the true nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy,” said Ken Carpenter, Hubble’s operations project scientist. “Much remains to be done, but this book will give you a front row seat to what’s been happening in this quest!”

A Cosmic Ghost Hunt

The trillions of stars, planets, galaxies, and other visible objects strewn throughout the cosmos represent less than 5 percent of what is truly out there. Visible matter is like the tip of an iceberg, or the foam on top of a latte. All the rest of the universe, dark matter and dark energy, is mired in mystery.

Dark matter is a phantom in the machinery of the universe. Though it makes up the vast majority of the universe’s bulk, dark matter would evade even the best “ghost hunters” because it is invisible, detectable only through its effects on normal matter. Its gravitational pull is the muscle of the cosmos, holding together both individual galaxies and galaxy clusters. Although scientists have long seen evidence of its existence, dark matter’s true nature remains one of the biggest mysteries in modern physics.

Hubble’s cosmic detective work offers clues by exploring the way matter, normal and dark, is structured and distributed throughout space. The mission’s observations have even tested theories about the type of particle that could make up dark matter. However, Hubble’s observations have not always matched predictions, hinting that our theoretical models still have several missing pieces.

Under Pressure

Shock waves of surprise rippled through the scientific community in 1998, when Hubble observations of supernovae in more distant galaxies helped show that the universe actually expanded more slowly in the past than it does today. This meant the expansion of the universe was not slowing down due to the attractive force of gravity, as many thought it should—it was speeding up.

Today, we still do not know the exact cause of this mysterious acceleration, but theoretical cosmologists coined the term “dark energy” to describe it. Dark energy is so weak that gravity overpowers it on the scale of humans, planets, and even within the galaxy, which is why it was unobserved for so long.

Dark energy is present in the room with you as you read, even within your body, but gravity is much stronger at smaller scales. This is why you do not fly out of your seat. It is only on an intergalactic scale that dark energy becomes noticeable—and since it is everywhere, it even overwhelms the dark matter! Hubble has helped gather very precise measurements of the universe's expansion rate, but its findings underscore a nagging discrepancy. The universe is expanding faster now than was expected from its trajectory seen shortly after the big bang, and no one yet knows why.

The perplexity surrounding dark energy and dark matter indicates that for all we have learned about the universe, we still do not know much about its underpinnings. Studying these mysteries opens the door to discovering exciting new physics.

“Hubble’s incredible scientific power continues to drive modern astronomy,” said Jennifer Wiseman, Hubble’s senior project scientist. “Dark matter and dark energy were not in mind when Hubble was first designed, and yet by detecting the impacts of these unseen cosmic phenomena, the Hubble Space Telescope is once again transforming our understanding of the universe.”

Scientists will expand upon Hubble’s insights about dark matter and dark energy with complementary observations from the European Space Agency’s Euclid mission that includes NASA contributions, along with NASA’s upcoming Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope, and a variety of other space and ground-based telescopes. We have far more left to learn among the stars.

As the fifth edition of the series, this e-book builds on the wealth of information shared in previous renditions that focused on the solar system, galaxies, stars, and exoplanets. Upcoming editions will zoom in on other cosmic topics, such as black holes—astronomical objects with such strong gravity that nothing, not even light, can escape their clutches.

The new e-book is compatible with most electronic devices and can be downloaded in multiple formats for free from: https://science.nasa.gov/mission/hubble/multimedia/e-books

For more information about Hubble, visit: www.nasa.gov/hubble


Image Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)

Caption Credit: Ashley Balzer

Release Date: April 6, 2024


#NASA #ESA #Astronomy #Space #Science #Hubble #eBook #ePub #PDF #Planets #Stars #Supernovae #BlackHoles #Galaxies #GalaxyClusters #DarkEnergy #DarkMatter #Cosmos #Universe #Astrophysics #SpaceTelescope #GSFC #STScI #UnitedStates #Europe #STEM #Education

Studying Planet Earth's Oceans from Space | NASA Goddard

Studying Planet Earth's Oceans from Space | NASA Goddard

NASA's exploration of our planet's oceans from space spans a rich history. Delving into the depths of Earth's oceans unveils the mysteries of our home planet. Therefore, NASA remains steadfast in leading the way in oceanic research.

Learn more about NASA's PACE Earth Mission: 

https://pace.gsfc.nasa.gov


Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)/Scientific Visualization Studio

Grace Weikert (AMA): Lead Producer

Katie Jepson (KBR): Lead Writer

Kathleen Gaeta (AMA): Support

Jefferson Beck (MORI): Support

Aaron E. Lepsch (ADNET): Technical Support

Duration: 2 minutes

Release Date: April 12, 2024


#NASA #Space #Satellite #Science #Earth #Planet #Atmosphere #Oceans #Phytoplankton #Land #PACEMission #EarthObservation #RemoteSensing #Weather #Climate #ClimateChange #GlobalHeating #GSFC #UnitedStates #History #STEM #Education #Visualization #HD #Video

U.S. Weather Satellites View Total Solar Eclipse | NOAA

U.S. Weather Satellites View Total Solar Eclipse NOAA

On April 8, 2024, the Moon moved directly between the Earth and Sun, completely blocking the Sun’s light and causing a total solar eclipse. During this event, the Moon’s shadow passed over parts of Mexico, the United States, and Canada, and millions of people were treated to a celestial show where the sky darkened as if it were dawn or dusk throughout its path of totality.


Credits: NOAA, NASA, Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA)

Additional imagery courtesy of Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS)

Total Solar Eclipse Photo: NASA/Jordan Salkin

Partial Solar Eclipse Photo: NASA/Joel Kowsky

Annular Solar Eclipse Photo: NASA/Jim Spann

2024 Eclipse Fly around visualization: NASA/SVS

Duration: 2 minutes

Release Date: April 12, 2024


#NASA #NOAA #Space #Science #Satellite #Sun #Moon #SolarEclipse #SolarEclipse2024 #Earth #Planet #Atmosphere #GOESEast #GOES16 #CIRA #Geocolor #Mexico #UnitedStates #Canada #NorthAmerica #CentralAmerica #SouthAmerica #AtlanticOcean #PacificOcean #Weather #Meteorology #RemoteSensing #EarthObservation #STEM #Education #HD #Video

Following the Total Solar Eclipse Shadow | This Week @NASA

Following the Total Solar Eclipse Shadow | This Week @NASA 

Week of April 12, 2024: Following the shadow of the total solar eclipse, a NASA astronaut returns safely from the International Space Station, and our lunar-roving robot gets some new hardware . . . a few of the stories to tell you about—This Week at NASA!


Video Credit: NASA

Video Producer & Editor: Andre Valentine

Narrator: Emanuel Cooper

Release Date: April 13, 2024


#NASA #Space #Earth #ISS #Science #Earth #Moon #VIPER #Sun #SolarEclipses #SolarEclipse #SolarEclipse2024 #Astronauts #LoralOHara #Cosmonauts #Russia #Россия #Roscosmos #Роскосмос #Expedition70 #HumanSpaceflight #JSC #UnitedStates #STEM #Education #HD #Video

Friday, April 12, 2024

First Human in Space: Celebrating Yuri Gagarin's April 12, 1961 Spaceflight

First Human in Space: Celebrating Yuri Gagarin's April 12, 1961 Spaceflight

Yuri Gagarin is pictured here before his historic April 12, 1961 launch, with Kirill Moskalenko (Army Marshal of the Soviet Union) and head engineer Sergei Korolyov. Note: Yuri's helmet features the abbreviation CCCP, standing for the Central Committee of the Communist Party (CCCP) of the Soviet Union to identify his nationality. Korolyov was the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.

Schematic diagram of Yuri Gagarin's Vostok 1 spacecraft

Vostok 3KA (1:3 scale model) A Vostok 3A spacecraft carried Yuri Gagarin and other Vostok cosmonauts of the Soviet Union into space during the early 1960s. 

(Source: Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum)

Headline in The Huntsville Times newspaper in the U.S. state of Alabama on April 12, 1961

U.S. President John F. Kennedy's Letter of Congratulations to Nikita Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), after Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 spaceflight. (Source: JFK Library)

Yuri Gagarin surrounded by a crowd of children, circa 1961.

A statue of Yuri Gagarin, the first human to fly in space, looms over the town square in Karaganda, Kazakhstan. Gagarin, who died in an aircraft training accident in 1968, was launched into the history books from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in present-day Kazakhstan on April 12, 1961.
A close-up view of a commemorative plaque left on the Moon, August 1, 1971, at the Hadley-Apennine landing site in memory of 14 NASA astronauts and USSR cosmonauts. Their names were inscribed in alphabetical order on the plaque. The plaque was stuck in the lunar soil by NASA astronauts David R. Scott, commander, and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, during their Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). The names on the plaque are Charles A. Bassett II, Pavel I. Belyayev, Roger B. Chaffee, Georgi Dobrovolsky, Theodore C. Freeman, Yuri A. Gagarin, Edward G. Givens Jr., Virgil I. Grissom, Vladimir Komarov, Viktor Patsayev, Elliot M. See Jr., Vladislav Volkov, Edward H. White II, and Clifton C. Williams Jr. The tiny, man-like object represents the figure of a fallen astronaut/cosmonaut.

“After flying around the Earth in a satellite ship, I saw how beautiful our planet is. People, we should preserve and multiply this beauty – not destroy it.”
—Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin

This is the 63rd Anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's Flight! The International Day of Human Spaceflight and Cosmonautics Day in Russia celebrate the first human spaceflight carried out by Yuri Gagarin in 1961.

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (March 9, 1934–March 27, 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut who, aboard the first successful crewed spaceflight, became the first human to journey into outer space. Traveling on his Vostok 1 spacecraft, Gagarin completed one orbit of the Earth on April 12, 1961, with his flight taking 108 minutes.

Following Earth re-entry and after ejecting from his space capsule at 7 km (23,000 ft) altitude. Gagarin landed using his own parachute. He and his spacecraft arrived 26 km southwest of Engels, in the Saratov region of present-day Russia at 51° North, 45° East.

Two schoolgirls witnessed the Vostok 1 capsule landing and described the scene: "It was a huge ball, about two or three meters high. It fell, then it bounced and then it fell again. There was a huge hole where it hit the first time."

A farmer and her daughter observe the strange scene of a figure in a bright orange suit with a large white helmet landing near them by parachute.

Gagarin later recalled, "When they saw me in my spacesuit and the parachute dragging alongside as I walked, they started to back away in fear. I told them, 'Don't be afraid, I am a Soviet like you, who has descended from space and I must find a telephone to call Moscow!'"

Image Credits: NASA/JSC/Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum/JFK Library

#NASA #Space #Astronomy #Science #Earth #History #HumanSpaceflight #YuriGagarin #ЮрийГагарин #Cosmonaut #Pilot #Russia #Россия #SovietUnion #USSR #CCCP #Roscosmos #Роскосмос #CosmonauticsDay #SpaceExploration #STEM #Education

NASA's Growing Garden | International Space Station

NASA's Growing Garden | International Space Station

Go on a journey to NASA’s space garden and marvel at plants scientists have grown on both the International Space Station and Earth.

Learn about the Vegetable Production System (Veggie):

go.nasa.gov/43GW10R (PDF)


Video Credit: ScienceAtNASA

Duration: 1 minute

Release Date: April 11, 2024


#NASA #Space #Earth #ISS #Science #Earth #Astronauts #FreshFood #Vegetables #Veggie #SpaceLaboratory #SpaceResearch #Microgravity #Astronauts #Expedition70 #HumanSpaceflight #JSC #UnitedStates #STEM #Education #JSC #UnitedStates #HD #Video

A Tour of the International Space Station with European Astronaut Andreas Mogensen

A Tour of the International Space Station with European Astronaut Andreas Mogensen

On the last day of his Huginn mission, European Space Agency astronaut Andreas Mogensen of Denmark takes us on a tour of the place he called home for 6 months—the International Space Station. From the beautiful views of cupola to the kitchen in Node 1 filled with food and friends and all the way to the science of Columbus, the space station is the work and living place for astronauts as they help push science forward.

For more about Andreas and his Huginn mission, visit the Huginn mission page: 

https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Huginn

An international partnership of space agencies provides and operates the elements of the International Space Station (ISS). The principals are the space agencies of the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, and Canada. The ISS has been the most politically complex space exploration program ever undertaken.


Video Credit: European Space Agency (ESA)

Duration: 7 minutes, 37 seconds

Release Date: April 12, 2024


#NASA #Space #ISS #SpaceX #SpaceXCrew7 #Astronaut #ESA #AndreasMogensen #Engineer #Crew7Pilot #DragonSpacecraft #Huginn #Denmark #Danmark #Europe #Expedition70 #HumanSpaceflight #STEM #Education #HD #Video

NASA's Space to Ground: Above the Umbra | Week of April 12, 2024

NASA's Space to Ground: Above the Umbra | Week of April 12, 2024

NASA's Space to Ground is your weekly update on what's happening aboard the International Space Station. The International Space Station soared into the Moon’s shadow during the solar eclipse on Monday afternoon, April 8, 2024. The Expedition 71 crew members had an opportunity to view the shadow at the end of their workday filled with cargo transfers, spacesuit maintenance, and microgravity research.

The windows on the cupola, the orbital outpost’s “window to the world,” were open and NASA Flight Engineers Matthew Dominick and Jeanette Epps were inside photographing and videotaping the Moon’s shadow on Earth, or umbra, beneath them. They were orbiting 260 miles above southeastern Canada as the Moon’s umbra was moving from New York state into Newfoundland.

The space station experienced a totality of about 90% during its flyover period. Views of the solar eclipse itself, the Moon orbiting directly between the sun and the Earth, were only accessible through a pair of windows in the space station’s Roscosmos segment which may not have been accessible due to cargo constraints.

An international partnership of space agencies provides and operates the elements of the International Space Station (ISS). The principals are the space agencies of the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, and Canada. The ISS has been the most politically complex space exploration program ever undertaken.

Follow Expedition 70 Updates: 

https://blogs.nasa.gov/spacestation/

Expedition 70 Crew

Station Commander: Oleg Kononenko (Russia)

Roscosmos (Russia): Nikolai Chub, Alexander Grebenkin (Russia)

NASA: Tracy Dyson, Matthew Dominik, Mike Barrett, Jeanette Epps

Learn more about the important research being operated on Station:

https://www.nasa.gov/iss-science 

For more information about STEM on Station:

https://www.nasa.gov/stemonstation

Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Education


Video Credit: NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC)

Duration: 4 minutes

Release Date: April 12, 2024

#NASA #Space #Earth #ISS #Science #Earth #Moon #Sun #SolarEclipses #SolarEclipse #SolarEclipse2024 #Astronauts #Cosmonauts #Russia #Россия #Roscosmos #Роскосмос #Expedition70 #HumanSpaceflight #JSC #UnitedStates #STEM #Education #HD #Video

Launch of Russia's New Angara-A5 Heavy Lift Rocket in Far East | Roscosmos

Launch of Russia's New Angara-A5 Heavy Lift Rocket in Far East Roscosmos

An Angara-A5 launch vehicle with an Orion upper stage was successfully launched from the Vostochny Cosmodrome, Russia, on April 11, 2024, at 09:00 UTC (18:00 local time). This was the fourth test launch (Test flight No.4) for the Angara-A5 heavy lift launch vehicle—the most powerful version of the Angara rocket, and the first Angara-A5 launch from the Vostochny Cosmodrome in the Far East Amur Region close to China. Angara heavy lift class launch vehicles will support future Russian Moon missions.

The Angara rocket family is the first Russian space booster designed since the fall of the Soviet Union. Development originally began in the 1990s, and the first rocket was tested in 2014.

It is described as an ‘eco-rocket’ due to its use of kerosene and oxygen as fuel.

Video Credit: Roscosmos

Acknowledgement: SciNews

Duration: 5 minutes, 24 seconds

Release Date: April 11, 2024


#NASA #Space #Astronomy #Science #Роскосмос #Roscosmos #Russia #Россия #Earth #Moon #AngaraRocket #HeavyLiftLaunchVehicle #АнгараА5 #Орион #AngaraA5 #LunarSpacecraft #SolarSystem #SpaceTechnology #SpaceEngineering #SpaceExploration #VostochnyCosmodrome #AmurRegion #STEM #Education #HD #Video

Thursday, April 11, 2024

Wide-field View: Dragon’s Egg Nebula & HD 148937 Binary Star System | ESO

Wide-field View: Dragon’s Egg Nebula & HD 148937 Binary Star System | ESO


Thousands of stars fill the frame. Most of them are small dots in white, bluish or red, but four larger ones surrounded by blue halos appear on the left and right margins of the image. The background is dark, with hazy, reddish, cloud-like structures covering most of it. There is a bright reddish structure in the center of the image. It is approximately the size of the larger stars, shaped like an egg tilted to the right, and has a bright white star in its center.

This wide-field view, created from images forming part of the Digitized Sky Survey 2, shows the rich star clouds in the constellation of Norma (the Carpenter’s Square) in our Milky Way galaxy. The beautiful nebula NGC 6164/6165, also known as the Dragon’s Egg, appears in the center of the image.


Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO)/Digitized Sky Survey 2

Acknowledgement: Davide De Martin

Release Date: April 4, 2024


#NASA #ESO #Space #Astronomy #Science #Nebulae #Nebula #NGC6164 #NGC6165 #Stars #StellarNursery #HD148937 #Norma #Constellation #MilkyWayGalaxy #Cosmos #Universe #DSS2 #VLTSurveyTelescope #ParanalObservatory #Chile #SouthAmerica #Europe #STEM #Education

Clash of Stars Solves Stellar Mystery in Binary Star System HD 148937 | ESO

Clash of Stars Solves Stellar Mystery in Binary Star System HD 148937 | ESO

Nine years’ worth of data from the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and other telescopes has revealed the mysterious past of an unusual pair of stars. The study reveals odd differences between these stars for a binary system—one of the stars appears younger and, unlike the other, is magnetic. The pair is also surrounded by a nebula hundreds of times younger than them. Astronomers believe this couple was originally a trio, in which two of the stars were much closer than the third and eventually clashed, violently merging into a younger, magnetic star. This event also released the nebula that now surrounds the stars. This video summarizes the discovery. 


Video Credits: European Southern Observatory (ESO)
Directed by: Angelos Tsaousis and Martin Wallner
Editing: Angelos Tsaousis
Written by: Elena Reiriz Martínez, Louisa Spillman, Davor Curic
Footage and photos: ESO/Luis Calçada, Martin Kornmesser, Angelos Tsaousis, Babak Tafreshi, Mahdi Zamani, VPHAS+ team
Scientific consultants: Paola Amico, Mariya Lyubenova
Acknowledgments: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit (CASU)
Release Date: April 4, 2024

#NASA #ESO #Space #Astronomy #Science #Nebulae #Nebula #NGC6164 #NGC6165 #Stars #StellarNursery #HD148937 #Norma #Constellation #MilkyWayGalaxy #Cosmos #Universe #Art #Artist #3D #Animation #HD #Video

Artist's Animation: The Violent History of Stellar Pair HD 148937 | ESO

Artist's Animation: The Violent History of Stellar Pair HD 148937 | ESO

This animation shows the violent event that changed the fate of the stellar system HD 148937. Originally, the system had at least three stars, two of them close together and another one much more distant, until one day the two inner stars clashed and merged. This violent event created a new, larger and magnetic star, now in pair with the more distant one. The merger also released the materials that created the spectacular nebula now surrounding the stars.

While the animations of the merger event and the birth of the nebula are artist’s impressions, the view of the nebula at the end is based on a real image from the VLT Survey Telescope, hosted at the European Southern Observatory’s Paranal site.

In a new study using ESO data, astronomers have shown that the two stars are unusually different from each other—one appears much younger and, unlike the other, is magnetic. Moreover, the nebula is significantly younger than either star at its heart, and is made up of gases normally found deep within a star and not on the outside. These clues together helped solve the mystery of the HD 148937 system—there were most likely three stars in the system until two of them clashed and merged, creating a new, larger and magnetic star. This violent event also created the spectacular nebula that now surrounds the remaining stars. 


Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO)/L. Calçada, M. Kornmesser/VPHAS+ team Acknowledgement: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit (CASU)

Duration: 32 seconds

Release Date: April 4, 2024

#NASA #ESO #Space #Astronomy #Science #Nebulae #Nebula #NGC6164 #NGC6165 #Stars #StellarNursery #HD148937 #Norma #Constellation #MilkyWayGalaxy #Cosmos #Universe #Art #Artist #3D #Animation #HD #Video

Zooming into The Dragon's Egg Nebula & HD 148937 Binary Star System | ESO

Zooming into The Dragon's Egg Nebula & HD 148937 Binary Star System | ESO 


This zoom video transports us from a broad view of the Milky Way in the sky all the way to the cloudy nebula NGC 6164/6165 (also known as the Dragon’s Egg), home to the fascinating star system HD 148937 right at its center. Using nine years’ of data from the European Southern Observatory’s’s Very Large Telescope Interferometer and other telescopes, astronomers have inferred that this pair of stars used to be a trio, until two fatally merged into one younger, magnetic star, releasing the stunning nebula you see in this video.

Distance: 4,000 light years

Nebula NGC 6164/6165 surrounding the HD 148937 star system as seen in visible light. Most of the image is taken up by a cloud-like structure shaped like an egg, slightly tilted to the right. It is colored in shades of orange and pink, with certain areas brighter than others. In a gap at its center, a white sphere shines brightly, with white, blue and green rays coming out of it. Surrounding the cloud are stars of different sizes and colors over a dark background. 

In a new study using ESO data, astronomers have shown that the two stars are unusually different from each other—one appears much younger and, unlike the other, is magnetic. Moreover, the nebula is significantly younger than either star at its heart, and is made up of gases normally found deep within a star and not on the outside. These clues together helped solve the mystery of the HD 148937 system—there were most likely three stars in the system until two of them clashed and merged, creating a new, larger and magnetic star. This violent event also created the spectacular nebula that now surrounds the remaining stars. 


Credits: ESO/L. Calçada, N. Risinger, DSS, VPHAS+ team.

Duration: 50 seconds

Release Date: April 4, 2024


#NASA #ESO #Space #Astronomy #Science #Nebulae #Nebula #NGC6164 #NGC6165 #Stars #StellarNursery #HD148937 #Norma #Constellation #MilkyWayGalaxy #Cosmos #Universe HD #Video

3D View: The Dragon's Egg Nebula & HD 148937 Binary Star System | ESO

3D View: The Dragon's Egg Nebula & HD 148937 Binary Star System | ESO

This 3D animation of the beautiful nebula NGC 6164/6165, also known as the Dragon’s Egg, imagines what it might feel like to fly close to these swirling clouds of gas and dust and approach the star pair HD 148937 at its heart. This video is based on a real image from the VLT Survey Telescope, hosted at ESO’s Paranal site, but the 3D view is not real—the location of the stars shown here is only indicative. 

Nebula NGC 6164/6165 surrounding the HD 148937 star system as seen in visible light. Most of the image is taken up by a cloud-like structure shaped like an egg, slightly tilted to the right. It is colored in shades of orange and pink, with certain areas brighter than others. In a gap at its center, a white sphere shines brightly, with white, blue and green rays coming out of it. Surrounding the cloud are stars of different sizes and colors over a dark background. Distance: 4,000 light years

This image, taken with the VLT Survey Telescope hosted at the European Southern Observatory’s Paranal Observatory, shows the beautiful nebula NGC 6164/6165, also known as the Dragon’s Egg. The nebula is a cloud of gas and dust surrounding a pair of stars called HD 148937. 

In a new study using ESO data, astronomers have shown that the two stars are unusually different from each other—one appears much younger and, unlike the other, is magnetic. Moreover, the nebula is significantly younger than either star at its heart, and is made up of gases normally found deep within a star and not on the outside. These clues together helped solve the mystery of the HD 148937 system—there were most likely three stars in the system until two of them clashed and merged, creating a new, larger and magnetic star. This violent event also created the spectacular nebula that now surrounds the remaining stars. 


Credits: European Southern Observatory (ESO)/M. Kornmesser, VPHAS+ team

Acknowledgement: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit (CASU)

Duration: 16 seconds

Release Date: April 4, 2024


#NASA #ESO #Space #Astronomy #Science #Nebulae #Nebula #NGC6164 #NGC6165 #Stars #StellarNursery #HD148937 #Norma #Constellation #MilkyWayGalaxy #Cosmos #Universe #3D #Animation #HD #Video

The Dragon's Egg Nebula & HD 148937 Binary Star System | ESO

The Dragon's Egg Nebula & HD 148937 Binary Star System | ESO


Nebula NGC 6164/6165 surrounding the HD 148937 star system as seen in visible light. Most of the image is taken up by a cloud-like structure shaped like an egg, slightly tilted to the right. It is colored in shades of orange and pink, with certain areas brighter than others. In a gap at its center, a white sphere shines brightly, with white, blue and green rays coming out of it. Surrounding the cloud are stars of different sizes and colors over a dark background. Distance: 4,000 light years

This image, taken with the VLT Survey Telescope hosted at the European Southern Observatory’s Paranal Observatory, shows the beautiful nebula NGC 6164/6165, also known as the Dragon’s Egg. The nebula is a cloud of gas and dust surrounding a pair of stars called HD 148937. 

In a new study using ESO data, astronomers have shown that the two stars are unusually different from each other—one appears much younger and, unlike the other, is magnetic. Moreover, the nebula is significantly younger than either star at its heart, and is made up of gases normally found deep within a star and not on the outside. These clues together helped solve the mystery of the HD 148937 system—there were most likely three stars in the system until two of them clashed and merged, creating a new, larger and magnetic star. This violent event also created the spectacular nebula that now surrounds the remaining stars. 


Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO)/VPHAS+ team

Acknowledgement: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit (CASU)

Release Date: April 11, 2024


#NASA #ESO #Space #Astronomy #Science #Nebulae #Nebula #NGC6164 #NGC6165 #Stars #StellarNursery #HD148937 #Norma #Constellation #MilkyWayGalaxy #Cosmos #Universe #VLTSurveyTelescope #ParanalObservatory #Chile #SouthAmerica #Europe #STEM #Education

Artemis II Moon Mission: Orion Spacecraft Testing | NASA’s Kennedy Space Center

Artemis II Moon Mission: Orion Spacecraft Testing | NASA’s Kennedy Space Center

On April 4, 2024, a team lifts the Artemis II Orion spacecraft into a vacuum chamber inside the Operations and Checkout Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where it will undergo electromagnetic compatibility and interference testing.




The Orion spacecraft for NASA’s Artemis II mission is photographed inside the Final Assembly and System Testing cell at the Neil A. Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Friday, March 15, 2024. 

NASA's Orion spacecraft for the Artemis II Moon Mission is undergoing altitude chamber testing at the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This puts the spacecraft through conditions as close as possible to the environment it will experience in the vacuum of deep space.


Four astronauts will venture around the Moon in the Orion spacecraft on Artemis II. It will be the first crewed mission on NASA's path to establishing a long-term presence at the Moon for science and exploration through the Artemis campaign.

Check the NASA Artemis II Mission page for updates:

Image Credit: NASA/Amanda Stevenson/Isaac Watson
Image Dates: March 15 & April 4, 2024

#NASA #ESA #CSA #Space #Moon #ArtemisProgram #ArtemisIIMission #ArtemisII #OrionSpacecraft #DeepSpace #Astronauts #VictorGlover #ChristinaKoch #JeremyHansen #ReidWiseman #MoonToMars #Science #SpaceExploration #HumanSpaceflight #KSC #NASAKennedy #Florida #UnitedStates #Canada #Europe #STEM #Education

The Changing Ion Tail of Comet Pons-Brooks

The Changing Ion Tail of Comet Pons-Brooks

How does a comet tail change? It depends on the comet. The ion tail of Comet 12P/Pons–Brooks has been changing markedly, as detailed in the featured image sequenced over nine days from March 6 to 14, 2024 (top to bottom). On particular days, the comet's ion tail was relatively long and complex, but not every day. Reasons for tail changes include the rate of ejection of material from the comet's nucleus, the strength and complexity of the passing solar wind, and the rotation rate of the comet. Over the course of a week, apparent changes even include a change of perspective from the Earth. In general, a comet's ion tail will point away from the Sun, as gas expelled is pushed out by the Sun's wind. 

12P/Pons–Brooks is a periodic comet with an orbital period of 71 years. It fits the classical definition of a Halley-type comet with an orbital period between 20 and 200 years. It is also one of the brightest known periodic comets, reaching an absolute visual magnitude ~5 in its approach to perihelion.

Comet Pons-Brooks was discovered at Marseilles Observatory in July 1812 by Jean-Louis Pons.

The greenish coma of this comet has become relatively easy to observe in small telescopes.


Image Credit & Copyright: Shengyu Li & Shaining

Image Dates: March 6-14, 2024

Release Date: April 8, 2024


#NASA #Space #Astronomy #Science #Sun #Earth #Comets #Comet #Comet12PPonsBrooks #Perihelion #Lacerta #Constellation #SolarSystem #Astrophotography #ShengyuLi #Astrophotographer #CitizenScience #STEM #Education #APoD

Black Brant IX Sounding Rockets Fire for Solar Eclipse Science | NASA Wallops

Black Brant IX Sounding Rockets Fire for Solar Eclipse Science | NASA Wallops



NASA Engineer Cindy Fuentes Rosal waves goodbye to a Black Brant IX sounding rocket launching from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia during the total solar eclipse on April 8, 2024. The rocket was part of a series of three launches for the Atmospheric Perturbations around Eclipse Path (APEP) mission to study the disturbances in the electrified region of Earth’s atmosphere known as the ionosphere created when the Moon eclipses the Sun. The rockets launched before, during, and after peak local eclipse time on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.

Three Black Brant IX sounding rocket launches at Wallops are presented in the images here.

Black Brant IX sounding rockets are produced by Magellan Aerospace in Canada.

Learn more about the Wallops Flight Facility:

https://www.nasa.gov/wallops/


Image Credit: NASA/Garon Clark/Chris Pirner

Image Date: April 8, 2024


#NASA #Space #Astronomy #Science #Earth #Atmosphere #Moon #Sun #SolarEclipses #SolarEclipse #SolarEclipse2024 #TotalSolarEclipse #SoundingRockets #BlackBrantIX #APEP #NASAWallops #WFF #WallopsIsland #Virginia #UnitedStates #STEM #Education

Wednesday, April 10, 2024

EPIC Solar Eclipse View (GIF): The Deep Space Climate Observatory | NOAA/NASA

EPIC Solar Eclipse View (GIF): The Deep Space Climate Observatory | NOAA/NASA



Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR): Celebrating The 9-Year Anniversary (2015-2024)

From one million miles away, NASA’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s DSCOVR satellite captured these spectacular views of the total solar eclipse that swept across a narrow portion of the North American continent from Mexico’s Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast of Newfoundland, Canada on April 8, 2024. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of Central America and Europe. 

Learn more on NASA's Eclipse page: 

https://science.nasa.gov/eclipses/

This is NOAA's first operational deep space satellite and became its primary system of warning Earth in the event of solar magnetic storms.

On Feb. 11, 2015, DSCOVR was finally lofted into space by a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. After a journey of about 1.6 million kilometers (1 million miles) to the L1 Lagrange Point, the satellite and its Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC). At L1—four times farther than the orbit of the Moon—the gravitational pull of the Sun and Earth cancel out, providing a stable orbit and a continuous view of Earth. These images were made by combining information from EPIC’s red, green, and blue bands. (Bands are narrow regions of the electromagnetic spectrum to which a remote sensing instrument responds. When EPIC collects data, it takes a series of 10 images at different bands—from ultraviolet to near-infrared.)


Image Credit: The DSCOVR EPIC team

Duration: 10 seconds

Capture Date: April 8, 2024


#NASA #NOAA #Space #Astronomy #Science #Satellite #Planet #Earth #Moon #Sun #SolarEclipses #SolarEclipse #SolarEclipse2024 #TotalSolarEclipse #Atmosphere #Weather #Meteorology  #ClimateChange #EarthObservation #RemoteSensing #EarthFromSpace #DeepSpace #DSCOVR #EPIC #UnitedStates #STEM #Education #Animation #GIF #HD #Video

Top Astronomical Discoveries of The World’s Largest Telescope Array (ALMA) | ESO

Top Astronomical Discoveries of The World’s Largest Telescope Array (ALMA) | ESO

Chasing Starlight 9: Celebrating ALMA's 10th Anniversary! Travel to the world’s largest telescope array. Made up of 66 antennas, the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) has been observing the sky at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths for 10 years now.

Join European Southern Observatory astronomer, Suzanna Randall, in the latest episode of Chasing Starlight, to find out about some of the greatest discoveries of this telescope.

00:00 Introduction

00:21 Trip to Chile

01:28 What does ALMA observe?

02:11 Taking the first image of a black hole

03:48 Looking at the birthplace of stars

04:50 Studying nearby galaxies

05:33 Revealing the details of planet formation

06:51 Doing astrochemistry

07:26 What else are scientists observing with ALMA?

08:17 The future of ALMA


Video Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO)

Duration: 9 minutes

Release Date: April 5, 2024  


#NASA #Space #Astronomy #Science #ESO #ESO60Years #ALMA10 #ALMA #RadioTelescopes #ALMAAntennas #Stars #ProtoPlanets #MilkyWayGalaxy #Galaxies #BlackHoles #Cosmos #Universe #Chile #Europe #STEM #Education #HD #Video

NASA's Next-Generation Solar Sail Mission | Ames Research Center

NASA's Next-Generation Solar Sail Mission | Ames Research Center

NASA’s Advanced Composite Solar Sail System (ACSSS) could advance future space travel and expand our understanding of our Sun and Solar System.  

Learn more about the Advanced Composite Solar Sail System:

https://www.nasa.gov/general/nasa-next-generation-solar-sail-boom-technology-ready-for-launch/


NASA's Ames Research Center is located in California's Silicon Valley.


Video Credit: NASA's Ames Research Center

Duration: 1 minute, 32 seconds

Release Date: April 10, 2024


#NASA #Space #Astronomy #Science #Engineering #Star #Starlight #Sun #Sunlight #SolarSail #ACSSS #Spacecraft #Robotics #SpaceTechnology #DeepSpace #SpaceExploration #Planets #SolarSystem #NASAAmes #California #UnitedStates #STEM #Education #HD #Video

EPIC Solar Eclipse Views: The Deep Space Climate Observatory | NOAA/NASA

EPIC Solar Eclipse Views: The Deep Space Climate Observatory | NOAA/NASA








Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR): Celebrating The 9-Year Anniversary (2015-2024)

From one million miles away, NASA’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s DSCOVR satellite captured these spectacular views of the total solar eclipse that swept across a narrow portion of the North American continent from Mexico’s Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast of Newfoundland, Canada on April 8, 2024. A partial solar eclipse was visible across the entire North American continent along with parts of Central America and Europe. 

Learn more on NASA's Eclipse page: 

https://science.nasa.gov/eclipses/

This is NOAA's first operational deep space satellite and became its primary system of warning Earth in the event of solar magnetic storms.

On Feb. 11, 2015, DSCOVR was finally lofted into space by a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. After a journey of about 1.6 million kilometers (1 million miles) to the L1 Lagrange Point, the satellite and its Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC). At L1—four times farther than the orbit of the Moon—the gravitational pull of the Sun and Earth cancel out, providing a stable orbit and a continuous view of Earth. These images were made by combining information from EPIC’s red, green, and blue bands. (Bands are narrow regions of the electromagnetic spectrum to which a remote sensing instrument responds. When EPIC collects data, it takes a series of 10 images at different bands—from ultraviolet to near-infrared.)


Image Credit: The DSCOVR EPIC team 

Capture Date: April 8, 2024


#NASA #NOAA #Space #Astronomy #Science #Satellite #Planet #Earth #Moon #Sun #SolarEclipses #SolarEclipse #SolarEclipse2024 #TotalSolarEclipse #Atmosphere #Weather #Meteorology  #ClimateChange #GlobalHeating #EarthObservation #RemoteSensing #EarthFromSpace #DeepSpace #DSCOVR #EPIC #UnitedStates #STEM #Education

Pan of Arp 122: A "Herculean" Galactic Merger | Hubble Space Telescope

Pan of Arp 122: A "Herculean" Galactic Merger | Hubble Space Telescope

This Hubble image features Arp 122, a peculiar galaxy that is made up of two galaxies—NGC 6040, the tilted, warped spiral galaxy and LEDA 59642, the round, face-on spiral—that are in the middle of a collision in the constellation Hercules. This dramatic cosmic encounter is located at the very safe distance of roughly 570 million light-years from Earth. Peeking in at the corner is the elliptical galaxy NGC 6041, a central member of the galaxy cluster that Arp 122 resides in, but otherwise not participating in this monster merger.

Image Description: Two spiral galaxies are merging together at the right side of the image. One is seen face-on and is circular in shape. The other seems to lie in front of the first one. This galaxy is seen as a disc tilted away from the viewer and it is partially warped. In the lower-left corner, cut off by the frame, a large elliptical galaxy appears as light radiating from a point. Many small galaxies cover the background.

Galactic collisions and mergers are monumentally energetic and dramatic events, but they take place on a very slow timescale. For example, the Milky Way is on track to collide with its nearest galactic neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), but these two galaxies have a good four billion years to go before they actually meet. The process of colliding and merging will not be a quick one either. It may  take hundreds of millions of years to unfold. These collisions take so long because of the truly massive distances involved.

Galaxies are composed of stars and their solar systems, dust and gas. In galactic collisions, therefore, these constituent components may experience enormous changes in the gravitational forces acting on them. In time, this completely changes the structure of the two (or more) colliding galaxies, and sometimes ultimately results in a single, merged galaxy. This may well be what results from the collision pictured in this image. Galaxies that result from mergers are thought to have a regular or elliptical structure, as the merging process disrupts more complex structures (such as those observed in spiral galaxies). It would be fascinating to know what Arp 122 will look like once this collision is complete . . . but that will not happen for a long, long time. 


Credit: European Space Agency/Hubble & NASA, J. Dalcanton, Dark Energy Survey/DOE/FNAL/DECam/CTIO/NOIRLab/NSF/AURA, N. Bartmann  

Acknowledgement: L. Shatz

Duration: 30 seconds

Release Date: Jan. 24, 2024


#NASA #ESA #Hubble #Astronomy #Space #Science #Stars #Galaxies #Galaxy #Arp122 #NGC6040 #NGC6041 #SpiralGalaxies #MergingGalaxies #Hercules #Constellation #Universe #HST #HubbleSpaceTelescope #GSFC #STScI #NOIRLab #AURA #NSF #DOE #UnitedStates #Europe #STEM #Education #HD #Video

Eclipse Moon Shadow & Soyuz MS-24 Crew Departure | International Space Station

Eclipse Moon Shadow & Soyuz MS-24 Crew Departure | International Space Station

The Moon's shadow, or umbra, is pictured covering portions of the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick and the American state of Maine in this photograph from the International Space Station as it soared into the solar eclipse from 261 miles above.
The Moon's shadow, or umbra, is pictured covering portions of the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick and the American state of Maine in this photograph from the International Space Station as it soared into the solar eclipse from 261 miles above.
The Moon's shadow, or umbra, is pictured covering portions of the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick and the American state of Maine in this photograph from the International Space Station as it soared into the solar eclipse from 261 miles above.
The Moon's shadow, or umbra, is pictured covering portions of the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick and the American state of Maine in this photograph from the International Space Station as it soared into the solar eclipse from 261 miles above.
Orbiting 260 miles above the Northeastern coast of the United States, the Expedition 71 crew experienced the 2024 solar eclipse from space. Pictured here is the umbra, or the Moon's shadow, passing over Earth. Aboard the International Space Station to witness the celestial event was NASA astronauts Matthew Dominick, Michael Barratt, Jeanette Epps, and Tracy Dyson of tyhe United States, as well as cosmonauts Oleg Kononenko, Nikolai Chub, and Alexander Grebenkin of Russia.
The Soyuz MS-24 spacecraft is pictured moments after undocking from the International Space Station's Rassvet module. Aboard the Soyuz crew ship for the ride back to Earth were NASA astronaut Loral O'Hara, Roscosmos cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Russia, and cosmonaut Marina Vasilevskaya of Belarus. The orbital outpost was soaring 261 miles above northeast China at the time of this photograph.
The Soyuz MS-24 spacecraft is pictured moments after undocking from the International Space Station's Rassvet module. Aboard the Soyuz crew ship for the ride back to Earth were NASA astronaut Loral O'Hara, Roscosmos cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Russia, and cosmonaut Marina Vasilevskaya of Belarus.
The Soyuz MS-24 spacecraft is pictured docked to the International Space Station's Rassvet module as it soared into an orbital sunset 260 miles above the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Costa Rica. Aboard the Soyuz crew ship and waiting to undock from Rassvet for the ride back to Earth were NASA astronaut Loral O'Hara, Roscosmos cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, and cosmonaut Marina Vasilevskaya of Belarus.

The Moon's shadow, or umbra, is pictured covering portions of the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick and the American state of Maine in these photographs from the International Space Station as it soared into the solar eclipse from 261 miles above.

The Soyuz MS-24 spacecraft is also pictured moments before and after undocking from the International Space Station's Rassvet module. Aboard the Soyuz crew ship for the ride back to Earth were NASA astronaut Loral O'Hara, Roscosmos cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Russia, and cosmonaut Marina Vasilevskaya of Belarus.


Image Credit: NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC)

Image Dates: April 6-8, 2024


#NASA #Space #Astronomy #ISS #SoyuzMS24 #Astronaut #Cosmonauts #Earth #Moon #Sun #SolarEclipses #SolarEclipse #SolarEclipse2024 #TotalSolarEclipse #JSC #UnitedStates #Roscosmos #Роскосмос #Russia #Россия #Expedition70 #HumanSpaceflight #STEM #Education